Audio Code 3. This is simply another name for Dolby Digital 5.1.
The DVD format is specially designed to support widescreen displays. Widescreen 16:9 video can be stored on the DVD disc in anamorphic form, meaning the picture is squeezed horizontally to fit the standard 4:3 rectangle, then unsqueezed during playback.
This anamorphic squeezing results in less of the picture being wasted on the black letterbox mattes. DVD has a frame size designed for 1.33 display, so the video still has to be made to fit, but because it's only squeezed horizontally, 33% more pixels (25% of the total pixels in a video frame) are used to store active picture instead of black. Anamorphic video is best displayed on widescreen equipment, which stretches the video back out to its original width.
Anamorphic video can be converted by the player for display on standard 4:3 TVs in letterbox or pan & scan form. If anamorphic video is shown unchanged on a standard 4:3 display, people will look tall and skinny as if they have been on a crash diet. The setup options of DVD players allow the viewer to indicate whether they have a 16:9 or 4:3 TV.
Aspect ratios are simply the width to height ratio of how a movie or television show is filmed. For example, in the United States, television shows are filmed in 4:3 aspect ratio. By doing the division, you can calculate that on a standard television the screen width is 1.33 times the height. On a widescreen TV the ratio is expanded to 16:9. Keep in mind however, that not all theatrical movies are filmed in 16:9 (or 1.78 aspect ratio). Many movies are filmed in 1:85, 2.15 or 2.35 widescreen. Movies filmed in an aspect ratio greater than 16:9 will result in black bars on the tops and bottom of the screen on a widescreen television. The 16:9 aspect ratio is also the standard for the new HDTV format.
Advanced Television Systems Committee. The ATSC is an international organization of 200 members that is establishing voluntary technical standards for advanced television systems. ATSC Digital TV Standards include digital high definition television (HDTV), standard definition television (SDTV), data broadcasting, multichannel surround-sound audio, and Satellite direct-to-home broadcasting.
Bi-amping refers to the use of two separate amplifier channels connected directly to individual loudspeaker drivers optimized to reproduce a particular frequency range. For example, one amplifier channel would be connected directly to a tweeter for high frequency reproduction, another to a woofer for bass reproduction. Bi-amping requires an electronic crossover to divide the wide range audio signal from a preamplifier before that signal ever gets to the amplifiers. The advantages of traditional bi-amping are significant. Damping factor (a measure of the amplifier’s ability to control the back-and-forth motion of the driver) increases, intermodulation distortion goes down, and effective amplifier power is increased dramatically.
Bi-Polar, Bi-Pole (Speaker)
Bi-polar refers to speakers with drivers that are fired in two different directions, but are in phase causing an increase in bass output. In this type of speaker, the drivers can be in the front and back of the speaker, side firing, or at 90º angles from one another. There are also speakers which function as both bipolar and dipolar. This can be adjusted using a switch.
Bi-wiring refers to separate wire runs from a common amplifier output to two different inputs on the same speaker. This requires a speaker specifically designed with bi-wiring in mind as the speaker’s passive crossover must be designed to allow this. And the speakers must have two sets of external binding posts connected by removable jumpers or "bus bars."
Center Channel (Speaker)
The center channel speaker is used to produce the voices and dialogue in surround sound movies. This is commonly referred to as the most important speaker in a home theater system because it produces approximately 80% of all the sound heard in an average movie. In movie theaters, the center channel speakers are placed behind the screen, directly in front of the viewer. In a home setting it is preferable to have the center channel speaker either directly on top of, or directly below, your television. Note: In an ideal situation, your center channel speaker will be the exact same make and model as the right and left front speakers. At the very least it should be the same brand as the right and left front speakers.
The standard video transmission method. It is not as good as s-video or component video. Composite video utilizes one (RCA-jack type) cord to transmit all picture information.
A video transmission method. Better than composite video and s-video, equal to RGB video. Component video uses three (RCA-jack type) cables to distribute the red, blue and green portions of a video transmission separately. Component video is typically used with DVD players and HDTV systems.
A crossover is a system of filters designed to divide audio bandwidth between each individual driver in each individual speaker.
Direct Broadcast Satellite. See DSS.
See Dolby Digital.
Dynamic Feedback Arrangement Scrambling Technique. DFAST is a proposed encryption algorithm to be used for distributing digital televion via cable lines.
Dipolar, Dipole (Speaker)
Dipolar refers to speakers with drivers that are fired in two different directions and are in reverse phase causing a cancellation of sound waves in front of the speaker. This is usually done in rear speakers that are wall mounted. The front of the speaker is aimed at the listening area, which causes all of the sound to bounce off the walls before it is heard. This makes it almost impossible to determine where the speaker is, creating a true surround effect.
Direct View TV
A television with a picture tube. These TVs are what have been the standard from the beginning. They are limited to a screen size of 40 inches and can produce a very good picture.
Dolby Digital (AC-3) is an advanced perceptual coding technology for transmission and storage of up to five full-range channels, plus a supplemental bass-only effects channel (referred to as a .1 channel due to the smaller number of bits needed for the information), in less space than is required for one linear PCM coded channel on a compact disc. Dolby Digital is a more powerful and flexible coding system than AC-2 and provides a feature set including -- 1) down mixing for optimal reproduction in mono, stereo, and Pro Logic compatible configurations as well as full 5.1 channel sound; 2) carriage of dynamic range and dialog level control information to decoders; and 3) operation over a wide range of bit rates. Dolby Digital can be heard on the soundtracks of a thousand plus films, and on the current generation of laser discs. Dolby Digital is being used on the audio tracks on DVD, and is the audio standard on the new high definition television (HDTV) system which went into operation in the United States in 1998.
Dolby Digital EX
Dolby Digital Surround EX adds a center rear surround channel to the 5.1-channel format, providing a new tool for delivering greater sonic reality and excitement to the audience. Since the format was introduced in May 1999, with the release of Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, audiences have thrilled to the added excitement in Toy Story 2; The Haunting; The World is Not Enough®; Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me; Fight Club; Pitch Black; The Bone Collector; The Messenger: The Joan of Arc Story; Bats; and Mission to Mars, among others. To date, more than 4,600 screens worldwide have been equipped for Dolby Digital Surround EX playback.
Dolby Pro Logic is Dolby's second generation licensed home surround system. A major advantage of Dolby Pro Logic is the use of an active center channel with its own speaker. Conventional stereo systems create a phantom center channel, which is effective for viewers seated directly in front of the television screen. However, for viewers seated off center, the dialog can appear to come from off center. But with Dolby Pro Logic and the use of an appropriately placed center channel loudspeaker, the dialog always appears to come right from the screen, allowing the main left and right stereo speakers to be widely spaced for a good spread on music and effects. Dolby Pro Logic decoders also optimally decode surround information which is typically fed to a pair of surround speakers slightly behind and to the left and right of the listener.
After introducing the use of A-type noise reduction to the film industry, Dolby's next major contribution was Dolby Stereo. This contribution allowed movie makers to put 4 channels of sound information (left, right, center, surround) on motion picture release prints using matrix technology, and gave theaters the ability to replay this 4-channel format for the movie going public. Dolby manufactures equipment which is used to make Dolby Stereo movies, making the equipment available on a picture-by-picture basis in conjunction with Dolby engineering assistance. Dolby also manufactures the playback equipment which is sold to theaters around the world.
Dolby Surround is the home embodiment of Dolby Stereo. Video production companies are licensed to make VHS tapes and laserdiscs which contain the same 4-channel matrix encoded information that was contained on the original motion picture release. Consumer electronic companies are licensed to make consumer surround decoders which reproduce these 4 channels in the home.
Digital Signal Processor. These are audio effects added on-the-fly to sounds by a receiver or amplifier. They usually consist of echo and reverb effects labeled "jazz, theater, hall, etc."
Direct Satellite System. A DSS system will use at least one small satellite dish (either 18" round or 20" oval) and a receiver with a removable access card (similar to the size of a credit card). DSS systems provide you with hundreds of channels to choose from. And because the signals are all digital, DSS systems are capable of delivering high quality video and CD quality audio. With the right equipment, it is also possible to receive HDTV signals over satellite. The two main players in the DSS arena are Direct TV and < DishNetwork.
Digital Theater Systems. DTS is an international, digital technology company specializing in multichannel audio for entertainment. Founded in 1993, DTS quickly became the leading provider of premium, discrete, multi-channel audio for motion pictures with the release of Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park. DTS digital sound is now featured worldwide in approximately 19,000 screens.
The DTS Consumer Group licenses decoder technology to equipment manufacturers for home theater, automobiles, and computers. DTS encoding technology is licensed to content creators for high-resolution, multichannel film and music soundtracks on DVD, multichannel music on Compact Disc, and multichannel audio for games on DVD-ROM.
DTS Digital Surround is an encode/decode system that delivers six channels (5.1) of master-quality, 20-bit audio. In the encoding process, the DTS algorithm encrypts six channels of 20-bit digital audio information in the space previously allotted for only two channels of 16-bit linear PCM. Then during playback, the DTS decoder reconstructs the original six channels of 20-bit digital audio. Each of these six channels is audibly superior to the 16-bit linear PCM audio found on conventional compact discs.
The new DTS-ES discrete 6.1 format employs a new, proprietary technology for the playback of discrete, 6.1-channel content from DVDs and CDs. The additional channel over 5.1 audio is a rear center channel. In addition to DTS-ES discrete 6.1 decoding, the new DTS-ES program includes the introduction of the DTS-ES Matrix 6.1 surround decoding format, which offers backward compatibility with existing ES matrix-encoded content, and DTS Neo:6, which is a matrix technology that derives up to 6.1-channel playback from conventional, stereo program material.
Digital Television. DTV is composed of three separate standards: HDTV 1080i (1080 lines of resolution, 16:9 aspect ratio); HDTV 720p (720 lines of resolution, 16:9 aspect ratio); and SDTV (480 lines of resolution, 16:9 or 4:3 aspect ratio)
The U.S. Congress has mandated a change from the current NTSC (analog) television broadcasting standard to DTV (digital) broadcasting. The Federal Communications Commission has established a schedule for the introduction of DTV. Most Americans are scheduled to have access to DTV by 1999 and everyone in this country is scheduled to have DTV access by the year 2002. At the end of the transition period -- which is now scheduled for December 31, 2006 -- broadcasters will be required to surrender their analog channels to the federal government. This will be the end of standard NTSC broadcasts.
Digital Video Disc or Digital Versital Disc, depending on who you ask. DVD has the same physical dimensions of a CD, however it can hold much more information. DVD aims to encompass home entertainment, computers, and business information with a single digital format, eventually replacing audio CD, videotape, laserdisc, CD-ROM, and perhaps even video game cartridges. DVD has widespread support from all major electronics companies, all major computer hardware companies, and all major movie and music studios. With this unprecedented support, DVD has become the most successful consumer electronics product of all time in less than three years of its introduction.
Some features of DVD include: Up to 8 hours of high-quality digital video on one disc, support for both widescreen and standard formats on the same disc, up to 8 tracks of mulit-channel digital audio (for multiple languages, DVS, etc.), up to 32 subtitle/karaoke tracks, automatic "seamless" branching of video (for multiple story lines or ratings on one disc), up to 9 camera angles (different viewpoints can be selected during playback), menus and simple interactive features (for games, quizzes, etc.) and much more.
Digital Visual Interface. A data transmission port which supports up to 5 Gigabits/sec speed. Bandwidth of 2.2 Gigabits/sec. is required to support uncompressed HD video transmission. With bandwidth of up to 5 Gbps for a single DVI link, compared to the 400 Megabits/sec. supported by IEEE 1394, DVI is the only digital interface capable of accommodating uncompressed digital data such as HD video. DVI also has the bandwidth to support higher audio fidelity, such as more channels of surround sound or 96 KHz sampling rates, as well as higher video resolution such as 1080p-ensuring no risk of long-term obsolescence.
Term used to describe hidden special features on a DVD.
Front-Projection Televisions. The really big screens. FPTVs include two separate parts, the projector and the screen. Screen can typically measure from 100 inches to about 20 feet. Projectors are available in either LCD (liquid crystal display) models or CRT (cathode ray tube). CRTs are usually more expensive but tend to produce better and brighter pictures.
These are the two speakers (right and left) placed in the front of the listening position. The front speakers handle most of the musical soundtrack of a movie as well as special audio effects. In a typical surround sound system, the left and right front speakers should form an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the listening position. This simulates the speaker arrangement used both for mixing surround soundtracks and for a center seat about two-thirds of the way back in a well-designed movie theater. The left & right channel speakers should also be capable of reproducing the full frequency range.
Gauge is a unit used to measure wire thickness. The smaller the number, the thicker the wire. (i.e. 10 gauge wire is much thicker than 16 gauge wire). Typically, is it desireable to have the lowest gauge speaker wire possible. Around 12 gauge is ideal, above 18 gauge is not recommended for serious home theater applications.
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection. A recently proposed scheme for HDTV copy protection. From the Silicon Image website: "HDCP has been heralded by the Motion Picture Association (MPA) as a means of providing consumers with the high-definition, Hollywood-studio content they desire, while also preventing illegal and unauthorized duplication. This industry milestone for consumers, Hollywood studios and consumer electronics manufacturers alike paves the way for consumers to receive previously unreleased and unavailable high-quality video-on-demand." HDCP is basically an encoding method for distributing HD content via a DVI (Digital Visual Interface) port. HDCP will disable home copying of material that has been copy protected. If this standard is adopted and enforced, all HDTV's produced prior to the introduction on this standard will be incapable of displaying full 1080i HDTV resolution.
(High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is the first and only industry-supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface. By delivering crystal-clear, all-digital audio and video via a single cable, HDMI dramatically simplifies cabling and helps provide consumers with the highest-quality home theater experience. HDMI provides an interface between any audio/video source, such as a set-top box, DVD player, or A/V receiver and an audio and/or video monitor, such as a digital television (DTV), over a single cable. HDMI supports standard, enhanced, or high-definition video, plus multi-channel digital audio on a single cable. It transmits all ATSC HDTV standards and supports 8-channel, 192kHz, uncompressed digital audio and all currently-available compressed formats (such as Dolby Digital and DTS), HDMI 1.3 adds additional support for new lossless digital audio formats Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD with bandwidth to spare to accommodate future enhancements and requirements.
High-Definition Television. I'm sure that you have either heard or read the statement that HDTV is the biggest breakthrough in television since color. It truly is. If you have never seen HDTV, you are in for a treat. HDTV is simply incredible. It is the most life-like picture you can get with the sole exception of looking out a window. HDTV offers wider pictures with greater detail and the clarity of motion pictures. Compared to standard television (NTSC), the true HDTV image has twice the luminance definition - vertically and horizontally - and is twenty-five percent wider. Standard television aspect ratio is 4:3 - the HDTV aspect ratio is 16:9. The 16:9 ratio is much closer to the average widescreen image shown in movie theaters. However, the biggest difference between NTSC and HDTV is its clarity. True HDTV pictures are composed of 1080 active lines (1125 total) whereas current standard television pictures are composed of only 480 active lines (525 total). The lines that make up standard television pictures are clearly visible, but HDTV lines are not at all noticeable. The fine-grained HD picture contains five times more information than does the standard television picture and is accompanied by multi-channel, Dolby Digital audio.
Units used to measure audio frequency.
Home Theater Personal Computer. A personal computer tailored to use with a home theater system. Usually consists of a DVD-ROM drive, sound card with digital out and high-quality video card.
Interconnects are a generic term for all of the audio and video cables that connect your system together.
Imaging Science Foundation. The Imaging Science Foundation
is in the Display Standards industry, and is dedicated to
improving the quality of electronic imaging. The ISF has
four basic roles in this industry: 1. Consulting with manufacturers
regarding product development. 2. Dealer training. 3. Media
communications through editorial copy and ad placement.
4. ISF licensing.
Low Frequency Effects. These are the very deep booming bass sounds recorded into a Dolby Digital or DTS audio track. They are typically reproduced by the subwoofer in your home theater speaker system, however if a subwoofer is not present in the system, most receivers will attempt to reproduce these sounds through your main front speakers. Because it is not essential to the soundtrack, the LFE track is identified as the ".1" in a 5.1 digital audio recording. Soundtracks recorded as 5.0 Dolby Digital do not include a LFE track.
Lines of Horizontal Resolution
Lines of horizontal resolution are often confused with scan lines. The two are totally different things, be careful when shopping for equipment. Lines of horizontal resolution refers to visually resolvable vertical lines per picture height. In other words, it's measured by counting the number of vertical black and white lines that can be distinguished an area that is as wide as the picture is high. Lines of horizontal resolution applies both to television displays and to signal formats such as that produced by a DVD player. Since DVD has 720 horizontal pixels (on both NTSC and PAL discs), the horizontal resolution can be calculated by dividing 720 by 1.33 (for a 4:3 aspect ratio) to get 540 lines. On a 1.78 (16:9) display, you get 405 lines. In practice, most DVD players provide about 500 lines instead of 540 because of filtering and low-quality digital-to-analog converters. VHS has about 230 (172 widescreen) lines, broadcast TV has about 330 (248 widescreen), and laserdisc has about 425 (318 widescreen). Scan lines, on the other hand, measure resolution along the y axis. DVD produces 480 scan lines of active picture for NTSC and 576 for PAL. The NTSC standard has 525 total scan lines, but only 480 to 483 or so are visible. (The extra lines are black and are encoded with other information). Since all video formats (VHS, LD, broadcast, etc.) have the same number of scan lines, it's the horizontal resolution that makes the big difference in picture quality.
Low Pass Filter. A filter that passes frequencies below a certain point. Above that certain point it filters the frequencies out, relative to a certain rate measured in dBs per octave.
National Television System Committee. In 1953 the NTSC devised the NTSC television broadcast system. NTSC is also commonly used to refer to one type of television signal that can be recorded on various tape formats such as VHS.
The NTSC standard has a fixed vertical resolution of 525
horizontal lines stacked on top of each other, with varying
amounts of "lines" making up the horizontal resolution,
depending on the electronics and formats involved. There
are 59.94 fields displayed per second. A field is a set
of even lines, or odd lines. The odd and even fields are
displayed sequentially, thus interlacing the full frame.
One full frame, therefore, is made of two interlaced fields,
and is displayed about every 1/30 of a second.
Over the Air. This is the acronym commonly used to describe standard television broadcast signals received by a rooftop antenna.
Ohm is the unit used to measure the resistance presented by a loudspeaker when a it is introduced a signal by an amplifier. (The word Ohm comes from German physicist Georg Simon Ohm, 1787–1854). Conventional wisdom makes an 8 ohm loudspeaker load the most acceptable because it "protects" the amplifier from delivering too much current. A 4 ohm loudspeaker can encourage a marginally designed amplifier to deliver more current than it comfortably can. All speakers in your home theater system should have the same Ohm rating.
Pulse Code Modulation. PCM is a digital scheme for transmitting analog data. The signals in PCM are binary; that is, there are only two possible states, represented by logic 1 (high) and logic 0 (low). This is true no matter how complex the analog waveform happens to be. Using PCM, it is possible to digitize all forms of analog data, including full-motion video, voices, music, etc.
Pink noise is noise that has equal energy in each octave.
A video transmission method. A video transmission method. Better than composite video and s-video, equal to component video. RGB video uses one 15 pin video cable (this is the same video cable and distribution method used in computer monitors) to distribute the video signal. Aside for PC's, RGB video is typically found on HDTV and DBS satellite systems.
Rear-Projection TV. The big screens. A RPTV is generally between 50-80 inches in size. In the past, the main drawback to RPTVs was poor picture quality. However, recent models of RPTVs can produce images sharper and clearer than the best direct-view sets. RPTVs are available in standard 4:3 models and widescreen 16:9 models.
Super VHS. Better than standard VHS, not as good as DVD. A S-VHS recorder will allow you to record programs in up to 480 lines of resolution (a standard VHS will only record/play 240 lines of resolution. S-VHS VCRs will allow you to play standard VHS tapes. Also, a Super-VHS VCR will have at least one S-Video output & input. In theory, a S-VHS tape will give as good quality playback as DVD, however, because it is a magnetic tape it still suffers from the same drawbacks of standard VHS such as tape degradation and deterioration.
A video transmission method. Better than composite video, not as good as component video. S-video separates luminance (black and white information) and chrominance (color information) signals. An s-video cord slightly resembles a computer PS-2 cable.
See Lines of Horizontal Resolution.
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound. A competing format with Dolby Digital and DTS in the theater market. It uses 7.1 channels of sound consisting of left, left center, center, right center, right, rear right, rear left and a dedicated subwoofer channel. SDDS is used exclusively in theaters, there is no home audio equipment which uses the processing system.
Standard-Definition Television. See DTV.
A subwoofer is a (usually powered) speaker which produces very deep booming bass sounds. Subwoofers are responsible for reproducing the LFE track in a 5.1 Dolby Digital or DTS soundtrack. They are typically a cube shape with a large single woofer either pointing directly at the ground or directly at the listener. Usually, subwoofers are placed in the corner of the room. Ideally, a subwoofer should be placed where it is impossible to determine the direction of where the sound is coming from.
Surround speakers are designed to handle the surround effects
is a Dolby Digital, DTS, or Dolby Pro-Logic soundtrack.
Ideally, for Dolby Digital and DTS, both the left and right
surround channels should be capable of reproducing the full
frequency range. However, because the surround speakers
receive a relatively small portion of the soundtrack, it
is a common practice to have the surround speakers be the
lowest quality speakers in a setup. The ideal placement
of surround speakers is on the right and left walls of a
room, above and only slightly behind the listening position.
Total Harmonic Distortion. Harmonic Distortion is a means for measuring Nonlinear Distortion. Nonlinear Distortion is a form of signal processing error that creates signals at frequencies that are not necessarily present in the input. THD is determined by measuring the size of each of the new frequencies that are created by the source of the distortion. The new frequencies are called "harmonics" because they exist at frequencies that are integer multiples of the input signal.
Tomlinson Holman Experiment. THX is a set of technical standards developed by Lucasfilm to ensure that moviegoers see and hear a film at optimum performance levels, as the director intended. This comprehensive set of standards includes rigorous specifications designed to optimize equipment, room acoustics, background noise levels, and projection and viewing angles. Think of THX as the auditorium itself.
The THX Sound System was developed in 1982 during the production of Return of the Jedi. Inspired by George Lucas' interest in upgrading film presentation standards in the industry, Lucasfilm's Corporate Technical Director, Tomlinson Holman, began to identify problems related to theatre sound. Holman noted theatre audiences were not hearing what was recorded in the film studio - many of the subtle sounds were missing. His innovative approach was to consolidate existing performance standards into a new system which included theatre acoustics as well as sound equipment. THX (named after Lucas' first feature film, THX 1138) is a sound system designed specifically to reproduce film sound exactly as it was recorded by the filmmaker.
The THX Sound System is the only program of its kind to consider all aspects of a theatre's audio and visual performance, including architecture, acoustics and equipment. "THX is really a performance criteria; it's not a specific set of components," says Holman. The system was created to complement advances made by Dolby Laboratories in decoding sounds in the sound track which concentrates on the "A-Chain." The THX Sound System concentrates on the "B-Chain" of a theatre's sound system. The "B-Chain" is comprised of customized acoustical design work for each auditorium, a special screen speaker installation method, a proprietary electronic crossover network, and rigorous audio equipment specifications and performance standards. Upon completion of a THX Sound System installation, the theatre is tested by a THX engineer to make sure it meets both THX environmental technical criteria and recommended industry standards for high quality visual and sound presentation. Theatres are recertified to ensure that optimum quality is maintained.
A certified THX theatre carries several important advantages for the movie-goer. The audience enjoys a more naturally balanced sound that uniformly reaches every seat in the auditorium, improved dialog intelligibility and decreased bass distortion. Better stereo localization makes the sound appear to travel across the screen with action. A frequency range that is wider by a full octave in both bass and treble allows patrons to hear higher highs and lower lows. The combined result is the reproduction of the same clear, dynamic sound originally created by the filmmaker.
Home THX Audio Systems, developed by George Lucas' THX Division, have become the world's standard for film enjoyment in the home. For over 15 years, THX has licensed its patented technology to leading A/V and PC manufacturers worldwide. The legendary training program has certified more than 1300 dealers as among the highest qualified to sell and install Home THX products. THX also certifies home video software through the THX Digital Mastering Program, ensuring that DVD software, laser discs and VHS videotapes provide the best image and sound quality possible through the use of patented THX technology and our unique quality control expertise.
THX Surround EX
Establishing a new benchmark for multi-channel sound, Lucasfilm THX has announced THX Surround EX a home theatre application of the cinema surround sound technology that made its theatrical debut with the opening of Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace. THX Surround EX is an enhancement to digital sound that decodes a back surround channel in a film soundtrack allowing for dramatic 360° surround sound effects that are smoother and more accurately placed either directly behind or directly beside a viewer. For more information visit THX.
Noise that has equal energy at each frequency.
A television with an aspect ratio of 16:9.
Another term for component video.